PLANT BASED NUTRITION AND HEALTH

As March is veggie month, I thought I'd tell you about a great book out by Stephen Walsh called Plant Based Nutrition and Health. After reading it a couple of time, I thought i'd post a summary. Please do go ahead and borrow or purchase the book as its very good reading and its will make you understand the summary better. This would also be interesting reading for anyone that wants to improve there nutrition though eating better. This is a summary of what is recommened and a few pitfalls to look out for.

ANTIOXIDANTS:

450 GRAMS DAILY FROM A VARIETY OF BRIGHTLY COLOURED FRUIT &VEGETABLES

230 GRAMS DAILY FROM:

BEETROOT
BERRIES (STRAWBERRIES, BLACKBERRIES, BLUEBERRIES ETC)
CHERRIES
ORANGES
PEPPERS
PLUMS
SWEET POTATOES
TOMATOES

150 GRAMS DAILY FROM:

BROCCOLI
DARK GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES (SPINACH, KALE ETC)
LUTEIN IN BROCCOLI & DARK GREENS IS BEST ABSORBED WITH SOME FAT (E.G. OLIVE OIL, VEGETABLE MARGARINE ETC)

70 GRAMS DAILY:
CARROTS

HOMOCYSTEINE AND HEALTH

VITAMIN B6, FOLATE (FOLIC ACID) AND VITAMIN B12 ARE NECESSARY TO KEEP HOMOCYSTEINE LEVELS LOW (TO PROTECT THE HEART)

VITAMIN B6 AND FOLATE (FOLIC ACID):
WIDE VARIETY OF VEGETABLES, LEGUMES & WHOLEFOODS (ESPECIALLY DARK GREENS & ORANGES)

VITAMIN B12 (COBALAMIN) AS SUPPLEMENT OR FORTIFIED FOODS:
VITAMIN B12 SUPPLEMENT:
10 MICROGRAMS DAILY OR
2000 MICROGRAMS ONCE PER WEEK
SUPPLEMENT MUST BE CHEWED THOROUGHLY
VITAMIN B12 FORTIFIED FOODS:
3 MICROGRAMS PER DAY

BALANCING CALCIUM

CALCIUM BALANCE IS AFFFECTED BY POTASSIUM AND SODIUM INTAKES
AIM: HIGH POTASSIUM AND LOW SODIUM
POTASSIUM: FRUIT, VEGETABLES AND LEGUMES (ESPECIALLY BANANAS & POTATOES)
SODIUM INTAKE: 1-1.5 GRAMS DAILY IS IDEAL (MAXIMUM: 2 GRAMS DAILY)
SALT = SODIUM CHLORIDE (1 GRAM SODIUM = 2.5 GRAMS SALT)
SALT INTAKE: 2.5 – 3.75 GRAMS DAILY IS IDEAL (MAXIMUM: 5 GRAMS DAILY)
USE LOW SODIUM SALT (1/3 SODIUM OF STANDARD SALT)

CALCIUM INTAKE:
AIM: 700-1500 MILLIGRAMS DAILY
500-1000 MILLIGRAMS FROM CALCIUM RICH FOODS, FORTIFIED FOODS OR SUPPLEMENTS
200-500 MILLIGRAMS FROM OTHER FOODS
MORE THAN 1500 MILLIGRAMS DAILY REDUCES ABSORPTION OF OTHER MINERALS (ESPECIALLY ZINC)
GOOD SOURCES OF CALCIUM:
KALE & SPRING GREENS 150 MG PER 100 G (RAW)
BROCCOLI 50 MG PER 100 G (RAW)
ORANGES 40 MG PER 100 G
ALMONDS 250 MG PER 100G
FORTIFIED FOODS
E.G. SOYA MILK (40–140 MG PER 100 ML, TYPICALLY 120)
TOFU - VARIABLE

CALCIUM IN SPINACH & TAHINI IS POORLY ABSORBED

VITAMIN K:
100 GRAMS DAILY OF BROCCOLI OR GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES
BEST ABSORBED WITH SOME VEGETABLE OIL / SOYA MARGARINE

FATS FOR HEALTH

FATS: 20-30 % OF TOTAL CALORIE INTAKE
1-2 % AS OMEGA 3 (INCLUDES ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID)
3-6% AS OMEGA 6 (INCLUDES LINOLEIC ACID)
BEST RATIO OF OMEGA 6: OMEGA 3 IS 3:1

TRANS FATTY ACIDS ARE HARMFUL (FOUND IN HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OIL/FAT)

GOOD OMEGA 3 INTAKE AND LOW OMEGA 6: OMEGA 3 RATIO PROTECTS AGAINST HEART DISEASE
HIGH OMEGA 6 COUNTERACTS ACTION OF OMEGA 3

BEST SOURCES OF FATS:
(1) UNREFINED EXTRA-VIRGIN OLIVE OIL
(2) RAPESEED (CANOLA) OIL

NUTS – 30 GRAMS DAILY (ESPECIALLY ROASTED CASHEWS, ALMONDS, MACADAMIA NUTS & HAZELNUTS)

SELENIUM – 2 BRAZIL NUTS DAILY

OMEGA 3:

(1) FLAXSEEDS (LINSEEDS)
(2) RAPESEED OIL
(3) HEMPSEEDS

GROUND FLAXSEED: 1 ½ TABLESPOONS PER DAY OR
FLAXSEED OIL: 1 TEASPOON PER DAY OR
RAPESEED OIL: 1 ½ TABLESPOONS PER DAY OR
HEMPSEED: 5 TABLESPOONS PER DAY OR
HEMPSEED OIL: 1 TABLESPOON PER DAY
(EACH ALTERNATIVE IS APPROX. 200 CALORIES)

LIMIT INTAKE OF OMEGA 6:
HIGH OMEGA 6 IN SOYA OIL, SUNFLOWER OIL, SAFFLOWER OIL, CORN OIL, SOYA MARGARINE, SUNFLOWER SEEDS, SESAME SEEDS & WALNUTS

MODERATE SOYA MILK (250-500 MILLILITRES DAILY) AND TOFU IS ACCETABLE:
SOYA PROTEIN: 20 GRAMS MAXIMUM PER DAY
250 MILLILITRES (ONE CUP) OF SOYA MILK = 8 GRAMS OF SOYA PROTEIN
100 GRAMS OF TOFU = 10 GRAMS OF SOYA PROTEIN

NATURAL IMPERFECTIONS
VITAMIN D (D2)

VITAMIN D IMPROVES CALCIUM ABSORPTION

SEASONAL SUNLIGHT:
WHEN THE SUN IS 40 DEGREES OR MORE ABOVE THE HORIZON (YOUR SHADOW SHOULD NOT BE MUCH LONGER THAN YOU ARE) (TYPICALLY APRIL – SEPTEMBER) THEN 20 MINUTES DAILY OF EXPOSED HANDS AND FACE (WITHOUT SUNBLOCK) IS ADEQUATE (20 MINS = 10 MICROGRAMS VITAMIN D). FOR MORE THAN 20 MINUTES OF EXPOSURE USE SUNBLOCK.

OTHER TIMES:
SUPPLEMENT / FORTIFIED FOODS: 10 – 25 MICROGRAMS DAILY (MAXIMUM 50 MICROGRAMS DAILY)
FORTIFIED FOODS E.G. SOYA MILK & SOYA MARGARINE

IODINE

150 MICROGRAMS OF IODINE DAILY
1 GRAM OF KELP (KOMBU) = 3000 MICROGRAMS OF IODINE
15-30 GRAMS OF KELP (KOMBU) SPREAD OVER A YEAR IN SMALL AMOUNTS
(= 0.29 – 0.58 GRAMS OF KELP (KOMBU) PER WEEK)

SUPPLEMENT ALTERNATIVE: 150 MICROGRAMS OF IODINE PER DAY

SELENIUM

70-210 MICROGRAMS DAILY
BRAZIL NUTS: 20 MICROGRAMS OF SELENIUM PER GRAM
2 BRAZIL NUTS (APPROX 5 GRAMS) DAILY SUPPLY 100 MICROGRAMS OF SELENIUM
SUPPLEMENT ALTERNATIVE: 100 MICROGRAMS OF SELENIUM (SELENIUM METHIONINE) DAILY

UNNECESSARY FEARS
PROTEIN

LEGUMES (PEAS, BEANS & LENTILS), GRAINS (E.G. WHOLEWHEAT), POTATOES & NUTS

IRON

POTATOES, WHOLE WHEAT, OATS, SOYA BEANS, LENTILS, & BERRIES
VITAMIN C AT THE SAME MEAL IMPROVES IRON ABSORPTION
VITAMIN C RICH FOODS INCLUDE: PEPPERS, BROCCOLI, DARK GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES, CAULIFLOWER, ORANGES & ORANGE JUICE

EXCESSIVE CALCIUM INTAKE INHIBITS IRON ABSORPTION:
LIMIT (FORTIFIED) SOYA MILK TO 500 MILLILITRES DAILY
TAKE ANY CALCIUM SUPPLEMENT AT NON-MEAL TIMES

ZINC

9.5 MILLIGRAMS (MALES) AND 7 MILLIGRAMS (FEMALES) DAILY
WHOLEGRAIN BREAD, WHOLE WHEAT, OATS, CASHEWS, ALMONDS, PEANUTS, PUMPKIN SEEDS, SOYA BEANS, MUNG BEANS (COOKED & SPROUTED), LENTILS (COOKED & SPROUTED), BROCCOLI, PEAS, GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES & OKRA

VITAMIN C SLIGHTLY IMPROVES ZINC ABSORPTION (VITAMIN C RICH FOODS WITH MEAL)
HIGH CALCIUM AND HIGH PHYTATES STRONGLY INHIBIT ZINC ABSORPTION
TAKE ANY CALCIUM SUPPLEMENT AT NON-MEAL TIMES
PHYTATES INHIBIT ZINC ABSORPTION
UNREFINED SEEDS ARE HIGH IN ZINC AND PHYTATES
SOAKING GRAINS, PULSES AND SEEDS HAS A MODERATE EFFECT ON REDUCING PHYTATE LEVELS
SPROUTING SEEDS REDUCES PHYTATE LEVELS
PROCESSING HIGH PHYTATE FOODS REDUCES PHYTATE CONTENT

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